Introductions: some biological and ecological characteristics of scallops
Several molluscs that have been introduced world-wide have become economically important for coastal communities. As far as it is known, at least four scallop species (Argopecten irradians, Argopecten purpuratus, Patinopecten yessoensis, Pecten maximus) have been moved between different biological provinces and it is possible there will be further such movements. Making an introduction involves responsibilities and so requires careful consideration. This is because there have been several unwanted impacts with movements of molluscs in the past. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea's (ICES) 1995 Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms and recent revision provides a basis for undertaking such an action wisely. In this review, scallops that may be used in future cultivation or in fisheries as potential candidates are examined in relation to the first phase of an introduction—the prospectus. This prospectus should take account of the purposes and objectives of the introduction, including relevant biological, pathological and ecological conditions in the donor region and the potential impacts of the species in the expected range occupied in the recipient region. This may require a study visit to the donor region to evaluate concerns relating to potential hazards. The ecomorphology of five different scallop shell morphs is discussed in relation to their behaviour and occupied habitat. Such information may provide an indication of their interaction with native scallop species in advance of their introduction.