Inventaire des plantes introduites en Méditerranée : origines et répercussions sur l'environnement et les activités humaines
This review addresses the problem of recently introduced plants in the Mediterranean in order to analyse their vectors, the dispersal processes and the possible ecological and economic consequences. Ninety-five cases (94 macroscopic algae and one seagrass) are listed and discussed. Three major routes of access into the Mediterranean are indicated: shipping, the Suez canal and aqua-culture. The recent introduction of Caulerpa taxifolia along our coasts has called attention to a new potential source: aquaria. Among the successful acclimatizations, cold-temperate Pacific and Atlantic species remain confined to the north of the Mediterranean (Gulf of Lions, Adriatic), whereas some tropical or sub-tropical plants colonize large areas. Some introduced algae proliferate to the detriment of the indigenous Mediterranean vegetation. In contrast with some terrestrial introductions, no population crash has been observed in the Mediterranean, although some notable fluctuations seem to occur in coastal lagoons. From an economic point of view, the two activities most affected by this phenomenon are aquaculture and fishing. With the gradual disappearance of European frontiers, the worldwide development of marine cultures and the multiplication of giant Seaworlds, the transfer of live marine organisms will become routine and the risk of new introductions will considerably increase in the Mediterranean. Only international legislation, established by the countries of the littoral, will be able to control these problems.
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Mots clés :
MEDITERRANEAN, INTRODUCED SPECIES, MARINE ALGAE, SEAGRASSES, ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES
Thème (issu du Text Mining) :
Oceanologica Acta (0399-1784) (Gauthier-Villars), 1994 , Vol. 17 , N. 1 , P. 1-23